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Tektronix- 



® 

COMMUTED TO EXCELLENCE 



4051 R05 

BINARY PROGRAM 
LOADER 

OPERATOR'S MANUAL 



Tektronix, Inc. 

P.O. Box 500 

Beaverton, Oregon 97077 

MANUAL PART NO. F,r9 < Printing AUG 1 976 

070-2171-00 This Printing AUG 1979 



WARRANTY 



This product and options, excluding customer supplied equip- 
ment, is warranted against defective materials and workman- 
ship under normal use and service for a period of ninety (90) 
days from date of initial shipment. CRT found to be defective 
within twelve (12) months from the date of shipment will be 
exchanged at no charge. (This does not include installation.) 

In addition, in those areas where Tektronix has service 
centers available for this system, on-site warranty repair is 
provided at no charge during the first ninety (90) days from 
date of initial shipment. 

Tektronix shall be under no obligation to furnish warranty 
service if: 

a. Attempts to install, repair, or service the equipment are 
made by personnel other than Tektronix service repre- 
sentatives. 

b. Modifications are made to the hardware or software by 
personnel other than Tektronix service representatives. 

c. Damage results from connecting the instrument to 
incompatible equipment. 

There is no implied warranty for fitness of purpose. 



Copyright © 1976 by Tektronix, Inc., Beaverton, Oregon. Printed 
in the United States of America. All rights reserved. Contents of 
this publication may not be reproduced in any form without 
permission of Tektronix, Inc. 



U.S.A. and foreign TEKTRONIX products covered by U.S. and 
foreign patents and/or patents pending. 



TEKTRONIX is a registered trademark of Tektronix, Inc. 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 



SECTION 1 



GENERAL DESCRIPTION m 

Introduction 1_1 

Machine Dependent Binary Code 1-1 

Specifications 1-2 

Installation Instructions (4051 ROM Backpack) 1-4 



SECTION 2 



BINARY PROGRAM LOADER ROUTINES 

Introduction 
BSAVE Routine 
BOLD Routine 
BAPPEN Routine 
LINK Routine 



2-1 
2-1 
2-2 
2-7 
2-9 
2-11 



APPENDIX A 
APPENDIX B 



SUMMARY 



ERROR MESSAGES 



A-1 



B-1 



4051 ROB BINARY PROGRAM LOADER 



@ 



Section 1 
GENERAL DESCRIPTION 



INTRODUCTION 

The Tektronix 4051 R05 BINARY PROGRAM LOADER is an accessory to the Tektronix 
4051 Graphic System. Four firmware routines are housed in a Read Only Memory device 
known as a ROM pack. The firmware routines are special sets of instructions for the 
4051 microprocessor. The BINARY PROGRAM LOADER adds to the capabilities of 
the Graphic System without disturbing the normal operation of the system or occupying 
any RAM (Random Access Memory) storage space. 

The BINARY PROGRAM LOADER gives the Graphic System the capabilities to work with 
program files stored in machine dependent binary code. Without the BINARY PROGRAM 
LOADER, the Graphic System can only work with data files stored in machine dependent 
binary code by using the READ and WRITE commands. Now, with the BINARY PRO- 
GRAM LOADER, the Graphic System has four binary program routines-BSAV, BOLD, 
BAPPEN, and LINK. With these routines, you can now save, retrieve, or append a binary 
program file, and you can also use binary program files as sub-routines by using the 
LINK routine. 

When you use the BINARY PROGRAM LOADER, you may not notice anything different 
about your program. Your program is listed on the screen just like it always is. You do 
not see any special code. You may notice that you don't have to wait as long to store a 
program. The main function of the BINARY PROGRAM LOADER is storage format, 
which is something you never see. 



MACHINE DEPENDENT BINARY CODE 

The term "machine dependent binary code" refers to the binary format used by the 

4051 R05 BINARY PROGRAM LOADER @ 1-1 



GENERAL DESCRIPTION 



Graphic System to store BASIC programs and data in the internal Random Access Memory 
(RAM). This binary code is unique to the 4051 operating system. 

Each BASIC command in an ASCII program file must be translated from ASCII code to 
machine dependent binary code in order to be ready for execution. Storing a program 
in machine dependent binary code saves time. For example, the BOLD routine loads 
a program into RAM from a peripheral storage device in approximately 1/4 the time that 
the OLD command takes to load the same program stored in ASCI I code. This time is 
saved because the program does not go through a translation . After being loaded, the 
program is ready to be executed or edited just like a program stored in ASCII code. 

From now on, this manual refers to machine dependent binary code as binary code. 



SPECIFICATIONS 

POWER REQUIREMENTS 

The 4051 R05 BINARY PROGRAM LOADER draws all necessary power from the 4051 
power supplies. Connections to the power supplies are made through the backpack on 
the rear panel of the 4051 main chassis or from the ROM Expander Unit. The BINARY 
PROGRAM LOADER ROM pack must be inserted into a slot in the backpack, or into a 
ROM Expander Unit, before power is applied to the system. 



Voltage Supplies 


Typical 


Current 




Operating 


Non-operating* 


+5 Vdc 


56 mA 


8 mA 


+12 Vdc 


20 mA 


mA 


-12 Vdc 


4 mA 


4 mA 



*The ROM pack is inserted but the routines are not being used at this time. 



1-2 @ 4051 R05 BINARY PROGRAM LOADER 



GENERAL DESCRIPTION 



TEMPERATURE 



Non-operating: -40°C to +65°C 
Operating: +10°C to +40°C 



ALTITUDE 



Non-operating: 50,000 feet maximum 
Operating: 15,000 feet maximum 



HUMIDITY 



95% non-condensing (storage) 
80% non-condensing (operating) 



VIBRATION (NON-OPERATING) 
0.015" DA-1 0-50-10 

SHOCK (NON-OPERATING) 

1/2 Sine 1 1 ms duration, 30 G's 

PHYSICAL DIMENSIONS (INCLUDING EDGE BOARD CONNECTOR) 

Length: 4.662" 
Width: 2.620" 
Depth: 0.875" 



4051 R05 BINARY PROGRAM LOADER @ 1-3 



GENERAL DESCRIPTION 



WEIGHT 

8oz. 

STANDARD ACCESSORIES 

1 --Operators' Manual .070-2171-00 

INSTALLATION INSTRUCTIONS (For the 4051 ROM Backpack) 

1. Flip the 4051 power switch to the OFF position. 




Inserting any device into the backpack when the 4051 power is ON 
may cause the contents of RAM to be erased. Make sure that impor- 
tant information in RAM is stored on magnetic tape before turning 
the power OFF and proceeding. 

2. With the power removed from the system, insert the BINARY PROGRAM LOADER 
ROM pack into a slot as shown in Fig. 1-2. Press down gently while rocking the 
plastic housing from side to side until the ROM pack edgeboard connector is firmly 
seated in the receptacle connector. 

3. Flip the 4051 power switch to the ON position. After a few moments of warm-up, 
the system is ready to use. 



1-4 @ 4051 R05 BINARY PROGRAM LOADER 



GENERAL DESCRIPTION 



4051 BINARY PROGRAM .LOADER 



INTRYj 

CALL BOLD- 

CALL "BSAVE" 



SEE OPERATORS MANUAL FOR DETAILS. 



CAUTION: 
Tttlttt 4051 POWER OFF BEFORE INSERTINI 
OR REMOVING ROW PACK 



SERIAL NO _______ 

PRODUCT NO 40S1R05 
TIKTRON1X- 



m 



♦ ' 




2171-1 



Fig. 1-1. 4051R05 BINARY PROGRAM LOADER ROM Pack. 



4051 R05 BINARY PROGRAM LOADER 



@ 



1-5 



GENERAL DESCRIPTION 





2171 2 



Fig. 1-2. Inserting the BINARY PROGRAM LOADER ROM Pack into a backpack slot. 



1-6 



(5) 



4051 R05 BINARY PROGRAM LOADER 



Section 2 
BINARY PROGRAM LOADER ROUTINES 



INTRODUCTION 

Each of the four firmware routines provided by the BINARY PROGRAM LOADER is 
explained in this section. If you are already familiar with the operation of the Tektronix 
4051, then these routines are a natural extension of the Graphic System you know. 

By using the Graphic System BASIC language CALL statement, you can specify the 
BINARY PROGRAM LOADER routine you want. The routine name can be specified 
as a string constant in the CALL statement, or the routine name can be assigned to a 
string variable and represented in the CALL statement by that string variable. Refer to 
the 4051 Graphic System Reference Manual for more detailed information on using the 
CALL statement. 

Three of the routines (BSAVE, BOLD, BAPPEN) perform the same basic operation on 
binary program files as their counterpart commands (SAVE, OLD, APPEND) perform 
on ASCI I program files. The syntax of the commands and the storage format of the files 
operated on may be different, but the same basic operation is performed. For example, 
the BSAVE routine stores a program on a peripheral device in binary code, while the 
SAVE command stores a program on a peripheral device in ASCII code. The following 
chart shows the relationships. 



\SCII Files 


BINARY Files 


SAVE 


BSAVE 


OLD 


BOLD 


APPEND 


BAPPEN 



The explanation of these BINARY PROGRAM LOADER routines includes comparisons 
to the related ASCII file commands. Use the 4051 Graphic System Reference Manual to 
find information on the ASCII file commands. 

4051 R05 BINARY PROGRAM LOADER @ 2-1 



BINARY PROGRAM LOADER ROUTINES 



BSAVE ROUTINE 



Syntax Form: 



-] CALL r? SAVE 'u,J (J/O address) 
( string variable J 



Descriptive Form: 



[Line number] CALL routine name [,l/0 address] 



PURPOSE 

The BSAVE (Binary SAVE) routine stores the current BASIC program on the specified 
output device in binary code. If an output device is not specified, the internal magnetic 
tape unit is chosen by default. 



EXPLANATION 

The Random Access Memory (RAM) holds the current BASIC program in binary code. 
When executed, the BSAVE routine sends a copy of the current program to the output 
device in binary code. Like the SAVE statement, BSAVE does not alter assigned values 
of variables or system environmental conditions. The CALL "BSAVE" statement can be a 
step in the program being stored, or it can be executed directly from the Graphic System 
keyboard. 



22 



@ 



4051 R05 BINARY PROGRAM LOADER 



BINARY PROGRAM LOADER ROUTINES 



STORING A PROGRAM ON MAGNETIC TAPE IN BINARY CODE 

To execute the BSAVE routine, the read/write head of the output device must be posi- 
tioned at the beginning of a file marked BINARY or NEW. The MARK statement must 
allocate enough space to store the entire program. 



Binary programs use more space on magnetic tape than ASCII programs. The amount 
depends on the size of the file. Because the SPACE function allocates the approximate 
space for an ASCI I program, the SPACE function may or may not allocate enough space 
to hold the entire program in binary. If you try to execute the BSAVE routine and the 
selected file is not large enough to hold the current program, error message number 48 is 
displayed on the screen. To make sure enough space is allocated to hold the current pro- 
gram, you can use one of the following methods: 

METHOD 1 Allocate all of the space the program uses in RAM. For example: 

MARK 1,32000- MEM 
The MEM function returns the number of bytes still available 
in RAM. By subtracting this amount from the total storage 
capacity of RAM, the remainder is the amount of space the 
current program occupies in RAM. This remainder is also the 
amount of space needed to store the program on tape. 

METHOD 2 Allocate enough space to hold the entire contents of RAM. 
For example: 

MARK 1,32000 
This method may waste a lot of space on the tape if the current 
program is small. 

NOTE 

The actual storage capacity of RAM is approximately 32K or 
32000 bytes. Of this 32000 bytes, about 2000 are reserved 
by the microprocessor for a work area. The MEM function 



4051 R05 BINARY PROGRAM LOADER 



@ 



23 



BINARY PROGRAM LOADER ROUTINES 



only considers the 30000 bytes that are free. By using 32000 
as a constant, you can make sure that you consider all of the 
possible storage capacity of RAM. 

Using the internal magnetic tape unit by default, the following example stores the current 
BASIC program in binary code. 

FIND 
MARK 1,1000 
FIND 1 
CALL "BSAVE" 

Since this is the first file on the tape, the read/write head is positioned at the beginning 
of the tape by the FIND statement. The MARK statement allocates space on the tape 
to hold 1000 bytes. The read/write head is then positioned to the start of the allocated 
space by the FIND 1 statement. The CALL "BSAVE" statement then transfers a binary 
copy of the current program to file 1. 

If you now execute a TLIST statement, you can verify the action performed. Note the 
header of the internal tape for file 1 is marked BINARY PROGRAM. 

TLIST 

1 BINARY PROGRAM 1024 

2 LAST 768 



USING SECRET WITH BINARY PROGRAMS 

The current BASIC program can be marked SECRET and also be stored in binary code. 
The rules for using SECRET are the same as with any ASCI I file. For example: 

SECRET 

FIND 1 

CALL "BSAVE" 



2-4 <a 



4051 R05 BINARY PROGRAM LOADER 



BINARY PROGRAM LOADER ROUTINES 



These statements store the current program as a secret program in binary code in file 1 . 
From a TLIST command, you can see that the file header is marked BINARY PROGRAM 
SECRET as shown below. 



TLIST 

1 BINARY PROGRAM SECRET 1824 

2 LAST 768 



To mark the header BINARY PROGRAM SECRET when using an external tape drive, 
such as the 4924, you must specify the I/O address of the tape drive in a SECRET com- 
mand. This allows the external device to recognize the program as secret and mark the 
header accordingly. 

For example, if the 4924 tape drive is assigned to device number 2 on the General Purpose 
Interface Bus, the following program stores the current program as secret in binary code. 

SECRET© 2: 
SECRET 
FIND@2:1 
CALL"BSAVE",2 



USING AUTO LOAD WITH BINARY FILES 

The AUTO LOAD key finds the first file on the magnetic tape and then executes an OLD 
command automatically. The OLD command loads and executes the first program on 
file. Because the OLD command does not work with binary program files, the first pro- 
gram on tape must be an ASCII program, if you use the AUTO LOAD key. 

By storing an ASCII program that finds and loads a binary program in file 1, you can 

use the AUTO LOAD key to automatically find and load a binary program. The following 

example shows how this can be done. 

Using a TLIST command, you can see the programs stored on the magnetic tape. 

4051 R05 BINARY PROGRAM LOADER @ 2-5 



BINARY PROGRAM LOADER ROUTINES 



LIST 

1 ASCII PROGRAM 768 

2 BINARY PROGRAM 1792 

3 LAST 768 



File 1, an ASCII program file, contains this program: 

100 FIND 2 

110 CALL "BOLD" 

When the AUTO LOAD key is pressed, the program in file 1 is loaded and executed. 
This program in turn finds and loads the desired binary program in file 2. Since the 
CALL "BOLD" statement is executed under program control, the binary program in file 
2 is executed after being loaded. 



SPECIFYING AN OUTPUT DEVICE 

The current program can be stored in binary code on any peripheral device in the system 
by specifying the desired primary address in the CALL "BSAVE" statement. For 
example: 

290 FIND@ 19:5 

300 CALL"BSAVE",19 

This statement sends the current program in binary code to file number 5 on device 19 
on the General Purpose Interface Bus. 

S CAUTION < 

Unless the interna/ tape file is closed when executing a BSA VE to 
an external device, data may be inadvertently written on the 
internal magnetic tape. Ensure the internal tape file is closed 
before executing a BSAVE to an external device. 

2-6 REV. A, JAN. 1977 4051 ROB BIN ARY PROG RAM LOADER 



BINARY PROGRAM LOADER ROUTINES 



BOLD ROUTINE 



Syntax Form: 



[Line number] CALL |" B . 0LD ". . . ) [, I/O address] 

Utnng variable J L ' J 



Descriptive Form: 



[Line number] CALL routine name [, I/O address] 



PURPOSE 

The BOLD (Binary OLD) routine loads a copy of the program stored in binary code into 
the Random Access Memory (RAM) from the specified input source. If an input source 
is not specified, the internal magnetic tape unit is chosen by default. 



EXPLANATION 

Any program that is in the machine dependent binary code of the 4051 Graphic System 
can be loaded into RAM by using the BOLD routine. A program stored by the BSAVE 
routine is usually the program retrieved by the BOLD routine. BOLD also loads BINARY 
SECRET programs, and the retrieved programs remain secret. 



4051 R05 BINARY PROGRAM LOADER 



@ 



2-7 



BINARY PROGRAM LOADER ROUTINES 



LOADING A BINARY PROGRAM FROM MAGNETIC TAPE 

To retrieve a binary program from magnetic tape, the read/write head of the output device 
must first be positioned at the beginning of a binary program file. For example, using the 
internal magnetic tape unit by default, the statements: 

FIND 1 

CALL "BOLD" 

load the binary program from file 1 into RAM. The FIND statement locates the beginning 
of file 1 . The BOLD routine erases everything currently in RAM, then transfers the binary 
file into RAM. The loaded program is ready to be executed by a RUN statement or edited. 
Like the OLD command, if the BOLD routine is executed under program control, a RUN 
statement is automatically executed after the program is loaded into RAM. 



SPECIFYING AN INPUT DEVICE 

Any peripheral device holding a binary program can be specified as the input source for the 
BOLD routine by designating the appropriate I/O address. The following statement 
specifies file number 6 on device number 2 on the General Purpose Interface Bus. 

290 FIND @ 2:6 
300 CALL "BOLD",2 



0_Q @ 4051 R05 BINARY PROGRAM LOADER 



BINARY PROGRAM LOADER ROUTINES 



BAPPEN ROUTINE 



Syntax Form: 



("BAPPEN" ) 
[Line number] CALL 4 . . ' > [I/O address;] line number [, increment] 

(string variable, j 



Descriptive Form: 



ri . u i oaii *■ ri/n ,, -. target line number rime number 

[Line number] CALL routine name, [I/O address;] . 3 [ . 

in current program increment 



PURPOSE 

The BAPPEN (Binary APPEND) routine inputs BASIC statements stored in binary code on 
the specified peripheral device and attaches those statements to the program currently in 
RAM. The internal magnetic tape unit is selected by default if an input device is not 
specified. 



EXPLANATION 

The BAPPEN routine follows the same procedure as the APPEND statement. First, the 
read/write head of the input device must be positioned to the beginning of a binary pro- 
gram file by using the FIND command. Then, when the BAPPEN routine is executed, the 
given target statement is overwritten by the first statement coming from the peripheral 
device. The newly appended statements and any statements that originally followed the 
target statement are renumbered, stating with the target line number. The line numbers 
are incremented by either the given increment, or by the default of 10 if an increment is 
not specified. 



4051 R05 BINARY PROGRAM LOADER 



2-9 



BINARY PROGRAM LOADER ROUTINES 



For example: 



200 REM APPEND STATEMENTS FROM FILE 2 HERE 
FIND2 
CALL"BAPPEN",200 

When these statements are executed, the FIND statement positions the read/write head 
at the beginning of File 2. File 2 must be a binary program file. (Error message number 
55 is printed if file 2 is not binary). The BAPPEN routine replaces line 200 with the first 
statement in file 2. The remaining statements in file 2 are then appended with line num- 
bers incremented by 10. 



BAPPEN WITH SECRET PROGRAMS 

If the program you want to append is stored as a SECRET BINARY program on the periph- 
eral device, after executing the BAPPEN routine, the entire contents of RAM becomes 
secret. This includes all original statements and the statements appended. 



SPECIFYING AN INPUT DEVICE 

Any peripheral device storing a binary program can be specified as the input device. The 
device is specified like this: 

FIND@ 15:3 

CALL "BAPPEN",15;650,50 

This statement selects file number 3 on device number 15 on the General Purpose Inter- 
face Bus as the input device. Line numer 650 is the target statement in the current pro- 
gram stored in RAM. The renumber increment is 50. 



2-10 



4051 R05 BINARY PROGRAM LOADER 



BINARY PROGRAM LOADER ROUTINES 



LINK ROUTINE 



Syntax Form: 



( "I I N K" ^ 

Line number] CALL < . '. .. } [I/O address;] line number 

{ string variable, ) 



Descriptive Form: 



[Line number] CALL routine name, [I/O address;] line number of entry point 



PURPOSE 

The LINK routine transfers a stored binary program to RAM from the specified peripheral 
device without disturbing variables and associated values stored in RAM. If an input device 
is not selected, the internal magnetic tape unit is selected by default. 



EXPLANATION 

The LINK routine erases the program currently in RAM, but retains all variables and their 
currently assigned values. Then, a binary program is loaded into RAM from the specified 
input device. The BASIC line counter is set to the starting line number and execution 
starts at that point. 

These features allow you to break a large BASIC program into subroutines, store them on 
tape, and then structure the flow of execution by using the LINK routine. By using the 
LINK routine, the size of a program is no longer limited by the storage capacity of RAM. 
If RAM cannot hold an entire program, you, can break the program into sections and use 
the LINK routine to load and execute the program sections. 



4051 ROB BINARY PROGRAM LOADER 



2-11 



BINARY PROGRAM LOADER ROUTINES 



LOCATING THE LINK POINT 

To use the LINK routine, the read/write head of the peripheral device must first be posi- 
tioned at the beginning of a binary program file. 

To locate the beginning of a binary program file, use the FIND statement. After the LINK 
routine is executed, variables and values are kept and the current program is erased. The 
entire binary program (previously located by the FIND statement) is then loaded into RAM. 

If the LINK routine is executed in immediate mode, execution stops after the program is 
transferred. The loaded program can then be executed by entering a RUN statement and 
pressing the RETURN key. Execution begins with the starting line number. 



If the LINK routine is executed under program control, then after the binary program is 
transferred, execution automatically begins with the starting line number. 



USING LINK WITH SECRET BINARY PROGRAMS 

If a LINK routine brings a SECRET BINARY program into RAM, then the entire contents 
of RAM are made secret. As always, secret programs can only be executed. 



SAMPLE PROGRAMS 

To use the LINK routine a BASIC program must be stored in binary code. As an example, 
the following program is stored in file 1 on the internal magnetic tape unit. Since this file 
is stored in binary code, the file is retrieved by using the BOLD routine. A LIST statement 
is executed to show the program. 



2-12 @ 



4051 R05 BINARY PROGRAM LOADER 



BINARY PROGRAM LOADER ROUTINES 



FIND 1 

CALL "BOLD" 

LIST 

100 INIT 

110 A$="CHANGE" 

120 PRINT "SOME THINGS NEVER ";A$ 

Now, the program is executed. 

RUN 

SOME THINGS NEVER CHANGE 

This binary program is used in the following examples by the LINK routine. 

100 A$="STAY THE SAME" 

110 FIND 1 

120 CALL "LINK", 120 

In line 100, A$ is given the value "STAY THE SAME". The binary file is then located by 
the FIND statement. The LINK routine directs execution to begin in line 120 of the binary 
program. So. . . 

RUN 

SOME THINGS NEVER STAY THE SAME 

The stored binary program is now in memory. No statements have been changed. A$ 
retains the value "STAY THE SAME" because execution started in line 120. 

Notice the INIT statement in line 100 of the binary program. If the LINK routine is 
specified by 

CALL"LINK",100 

4051 R05 BINARY PROGRAM LOADER @ 



2-13 



BINARY PROGRAM LOADER ROUTINES 

then execution would begin with line 100. The I NIT statement puts all variables in an 
undefined state, including any variables retained by the LINK routine. A$ would be 
undefined. Then in line 1 10 of the binary program, A$ would be set to "CHANGE". 

If the LINK routine is specified by 

CALL"LINK",110 

then A$ is retained with the value "STAY THE SAME", but is set to "CHANGE" in line 
1 10 of the binary program. 

From these examples, you can see how execution and program flow can be controlled by 
using the LINK routine. 



SPECIFYING THE INPUT DEVICE 

The LINK routine uses any peripheral device in the Graphic System. You can specify 
the desired peripheral device like this: 

FIND@2:8 
CALL"LINK",2;150 

In this case, file number 8 on device number 2 is selected as the input device on the Gen- 
eral Purpose Interface Bus. Execution begins with line 150. 



2-14 @ 4051 R05 BINARY PROGRAM LOADER 



Appendix A 

SUMMARY 



1. The BINARY PROGRAM LOADER adds four routines to the Tektronix 4051 Graphic 
System. Three of the routines (BSAVE, BOLD, BAPPEN) perform the same basic 
operation on binary files as the commands (SAVE, OLD, APPEND) perform on 
ASCII program files. The following chart sumarizes the four routines and their 
relationships to other statements. 

BINARY ASCII 



BSAVE SAVE 

BOLD OLD 

BAPPEN APPEND 
LINK 



2. All routines are specified by using a CALL statement. 

3. All routines access binary program files. 

4. The read/write head of the peripheral device must be positioned to the beginning 
of the binary program file before executing a BINARY PROGRAM LOADER 
routine. Use the FIND statement to locate the beginning of a file. 

5. Binary programs may be also declared SECRET. The SECRET BINARY program 
remains secret when used by a BINARY PROGRAM LOADER routine. 



4051 R05 BINARY PROGRAM LOADER @ A-1 



Appendix B 



ERROR MESSAGES 



MESSAGE 
NUMBER 



ERROR MESSAGE 

PROBABLE CAUSE AND SOLUTION 



14 



INVALID COMMAND ARGUMENT 
A parameter in the CALL statement for the BAPPEN 
routine is invalid. Check the syntax of the CALL state- 
ment for the BAPPEN routine. 



15 



INVALID COMMAND ARGUMENT 
The line number specified in the CALL statement for the 
BAPPEN routine does not exist. List the program to find 
the correct line number. 



32 



CALL NAME INVALID 

The routine name is misspelled. Check the spelling of 

the selected routine name. 

A string variable appears in a CALL statement with a 

value of no recognizable routine name. Check the spelling 

of the value assigned to the string variable. 

The 4051 R05 ROM pack is not installed in the machine. 

See the installation instructions included in this manual. 



38 



PROGRAM IS SECRET 

You attempted to modify or output a secret program. 

Secret programs can only be executed after being retrieved. 



4051 R05 BINARY PROGRAM LOADER 



B-1 



APPENDIX B 



48 


EOF ON UNIT IN IMMEDIATE LINE 

You tried to store a program in a file that is not large 

enough to hold the entire program. Either allocate more 
space for that file or locate or make a file with more space. 


51 


INVALID LINE NUMBER 

The line number specified cannot be found or is invalid. 

List the program to find the correct line number. 


52 


MAG TAPE FILE NOT FOUND 

Either the specified magnetic tape file does not exist or 

an attempt has just been make to Kl LL the LAST (dummy) 

file. 

Issue a TLIST to find the desired file number. 


55 


MAGTAPE ERROR 
The read/write head is not at the beginning of a file before 

accessing that file. Execute a FIND statement to position 

the read/write head before using the file. 
You tried to use an ASCII program file with one of the 

BINARY PROGRAM LOADER routines. The BINARY 

PROGRAM LOADER routines only operate on a BINARY 

PROGRAM file. 
You tried to use an ASCII program file command with a 

BINARY PROGRAM file. BINARY PROGRAM files can 

only be used by the BINARY PROGRAM LOADER routines. 


57 


MAG TAPE CARTRIDGE REQUIRED 

A magnetic tape cartridge is not inserted into the magnetic 

tape unit. 

Insert a magnetic tape into the tape unit. 



B-2 



4051 R05 BINARY PROGRAM LOADER 



APPENDIX B 



61 



INVALID OPERATION ON AN OPEN FILE 
A MARK statement was executed and the read/write 
head of the peripheral device was not positioned at the 
beginning of a file. Use the FIND statement to position 
the read/write head. 



4051 R05 BINARY PROGRAM LOADER 



B-3